A Scientific Look at Botanical Plants and Supplements Against Coronavirus
Richard Gale and Gary Null PhD

Progressive Radio Network, March 10, 2020

In recent weeks, the coronavirus pandemic has dominated the news at the expense
of everything else that is critical and urgent in our lives. As panic increases and
more cases are reported daily, health-minded people are eager or even desperate
to know whether there are ways to strengthen the body’s immune system to offer
some protection from this specific upper respiratory infection.
There are six known strains of coronavirus, four which are associated with the
common cold or moderate respiratory infections. Everyone has likely had a
coronavirus infection at some time in their lives. However, two strains — Severe
Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
(MERS) — are more severe. Between the years 2002-2004 and 2014-2018 these
strains respectively were observed to be lethal. However, during these periods,
total deaths were under one thousand. SARS has the ability to infect the lower
respiratory system as well. The current strain being called Covid19 is a new
mutation that is being recognized as a novel SARS. As of this writing, the current
coronavirus has been attributed to over 4,000 deaths, the large majority among the
elderly. In a recent press conference the Surgeon General remarked that the
average age of death was 80.
Compared to other viral infections that target the respiratory tract, especially
influenza, there has been far less research either to understand the pathway of
infection and the drugs or natural substances to battle the virus. It remains
uncertain how long immunity lasts, if any, after infection. Seemingly, immunity
wanes quickly. Consequently, since coronavirus is most often responsible for a flu-
like common cold, recommended prevention and treatment protocols are largely
similar to the flu.
During a recent coronavirus task force meeting, Trump asked whether the flu
vaccine would protect against the coronavirus. The flu vaccine is not only influenza-
specific, it is also flu strain specific. It offers absolutely no protection to any other
viruses. Nevertheless we are going to likely witness a sharp rise in propaganda
recommending flu vaccines to fight the coronavirus scare. The belief is that
increasing national flu vaccination compliance will not only reduce the risks of flu
infection but will also help divert money away from flu infections to better deal with
the rising coronavirus cases.
But there is a caveat. A very serious caveat.

Sometimes the universe has an unusual way of providing warnings that we have an
opportunity to either heed or disregard to our benefit or detriment. On December
31, 2019 in order to usher in the New Year, China reported the first case of an
“unusual pneumonia” in its port city of Wuhan. A week later on January 7th, the
pathogen was identified as a novel strain of coronavirus.  That same month, the
prestigious journal Vaccine, published a study conducted by the Armed Forces
Health Surveillance Branch at Wright Patterson Air Force Base. Researchers
investigated viral interference due to receiving the flu shot; in other words, does
the flu vaccine make a recipient more susceptible to other non-influenza respiratory
viral infections? The study’s conclusions state “Vaccine derived virus interference
was significantly associated with coronavirus and human metapneumovirus.”
This is not the first time that viral interference from the flu vaccine has been
associated with an increase in non-influenza respiratory infections. A much more
thorough study, an actual clinical trial, was conducted by the University of Hong
Kong in 2012. The double blind randomized controlled trial followed a group of flu-
vaccinated versus placebo-vaccinated children between 6 and 15 years of age over
the course of nine months to determine infection rates from 19 other respiratory
viruses. The study found “no statistically significant difference in the risk of
confirmed seasonal influence influenza infection between recipients of the [influenza
vaccine] or placebo.” However, it was the dramatic number of incidences of non-
influenza infections found in the flu-vaccinated group (105 cases), which included
coronavirus, as opposed to 54 cases among those who received a placebo. In other
words, the results suggest that receiving the flu shot may increase one’s risk of
contracting another infectious virus by almost 100 percent.
A recent analysis out of China reviewing rates of infection, targeted populations and
mortality reported that the worst hit group is older people, particularly those who
have immune-compromised conditions: cardiovascular disease, hypertension,
diabetes, chronic respiratory illnesses, etc. Taking this statistic into account, we
may note that the majority of American adults have some type of chronic condition.
It is estimated that 60% of American adults have at least one underlying health
condition and 40% have two or more. For example, 33 million have diabetes and an
estimated 84 million are pre-diabetic; heart disease affects 121 million and there
are approximately 1.7 million new cancer diagnoses annually. All of these people,
therefore, have either a mild to severe compromised immune system.
A Swiss study noted that the SARS coronavirus and influenza share two of the same
proteases in targeted cells — TMPRSS2 and HAT. These are responsible for
activating the spread of the virus at the point of infection and contribute to their
pathogenesis in an infected cell. Therefore it may be partially conjecture on our part
to suggest that natural supplements and botanical remedies that have been shown
in the scientific literature to be effective against influenza may more or less be

effective against coronavirus as well. In fact, last month a study was released by
Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in the Journal of Medical Virology
recommending that patients’ nutritional status should be evaluated before any
conventional treatment.  The hospital recommended a regimen that included
Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, Omega-3, Selenium, Zinc, gammaglobulin A administered
intravenously and Chinese traditional medicine
Therefore we have scoured the peer-reviewed literature on the National Institutes
of Health’s Library of Medicine database to identify compelling studies that may
warrant vitamin, antioxidant, and botanical supplementation as a means to protect
ourselves from coronavirus and other viral infections. These have been shown to
either have strong antiviral properties in general or have known biomolecular
effects to strengthen the immune system against microbial infection. We are not
offering prescriptions. This is just a summary of some important scientific
information for you to make better informed decisions for protecting yourself while
the coronavirus wends its course.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), coronaviral infections belong to a specific
epidemic disease category. Astragulus is not only a very popular plant used in TCM,
but it is also one of the most researched and promising botanical plants shown to
have antiviral properties. In both TCM and Ayruveda medicinal formulas astrugulus
has been prescribed for centuries because of its effectiveness against infections and
over-stressed respiratory conditions. Compounds, notably saponins, found in
astragulus have been well researched and found to hinder influenza proliferation.
The US Department of Agriculture’s Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory found it
inhibits avian flu viruses.
Jinlin Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China conducted a study published in the
journal Microbiological Pathology that concluded
“Astragulus exhibits antiviral properties that can treat infectious bronchitis
caused by [avian] coronavirus”
In China, which has a large poultry industry, avian coronaviruses are a serious
threat to chicken farmers. Chinese farmers will often include astragulus in feed to
protect the birds from infection as well as pig feed to ward off porcine circovirus.
Two weeks ago, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine completed an analysis of
previous research looking at the benefits of Chinese herbal formulas against the

SARS coronavirus and H1N1 flu (swine flu). In 3 studies, among participants who
took formulas against SARS, none contracted the illness. Nor did any contract H1N1
influenza in four additional studies. A primary ingredient in these formulas’ was
Earlier in February, researchers at Beijing Children’s Hospital at the Capital Medical
University provided a thorough overview of recommended diagnostic procedures
and treatments for specific symptoms witnessed in the current Covid19 infections
that included both allopathic and traditional Chinese medicine. In cases where
there are signs of severe weakness and stress observed in the lungs and spleen, a
formula called Liu Jun Zi is being prescribed, which includes astragulus and ginseng
as two primary botanicals.
Last week, the prestigious journal Science published a review out of Yun-nan
Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China that investigated the great disparities in
infection and mortality rates between different provinces – Wuhan being the most
severe. In the provinces with the lowest infection rates, there was between an
84% to 98% use of TCM formulas.  Again, two of the main ingredients were
Astragulus and Ginseng.

Licorice Root (Glycyrrhizin Acid)
In traditional medicine licorice root has been used to relieve and treat ulcers, sore
throats, bronchitis, coughs, adrenal insufficiencies and allergic diseases. Ancient
manuscripts from China, India and Greece all include licorice for treating respiratory
tract infections and hepatitis. Licorice’s main antiviral compounds are known as
glycyrrhizins (GL). For 20 years Japan has used glycyrrhizins intravenously to treat
chronic hepatitis B and C infections with very rare side effects. It has also been
shown to induce apoptosis in lymphoma cells and Karposi sarcoma related to
herpesvirus. Therefore it was an unexpected surprise to discover that there is
notable research on glycyrrihizin’s effectiveness against coronavirus and in
particular SARS.
Japan’s National Institute of Infectious Disease reported GL’s effectiveness against
coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as well as Epstein Barr
virus and human cytomegalovirus. After the deadly SARS outbreak in 2012,
virologists at Frankfurt University Medical School investigated several antiviral
compounds to treat patients admitted with SARS coronavirus infections. Of all the
compounds tested, licorice’s GL was the most effective. The scientists concluded
that “Our findings suggest that glycyrrhizin should be assessed for treatment of

The above research was later replicated at Sun Yat Sen University in China and
published in the Chinese journal Bing Du Xue Bao. The researchers identified
several derivatives of glycyrrhizin as primary molecules with antiviral properties. In
addition to being effective against the SARS coronavirus, they also found it may be
effective against herpes, HIV, hepatitis and influenza.
Earlier in 2005, a team of scientists from Goethe University in Germany and the
Russian Academy of Sciences had already identified the antiviral activity of GL
against SARS coronavirus. The molecule showed a ten-fold increase in anti-SARS
activity compared to other potential treatments tested. One conjugate of GL had a
70-fold increase. That study was published in the Journal of Medical Chemistry.
During that same year, the Chinese Academy of Sciences screened over 200
botanical plants used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to find those with the strong
potency SARS coronavirus. Four botanicals stood out. One of the four was licorice’s
Extract of licorice root is the most effective and glycyrrhizin is also available as a
separate botanical supplement.

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
Elderberry has become a popular supplement for relieving symptoms of the
common cold and flu infections. It is found worldwide and is part of many of the
world’s indigenous pharmacopias. There are many species of elderberry; the
species Sambucus nigra seemingly has been shown to have the most medicinal
qualities. When purchasing Elderberry or Sambucus, it is recommended to note it is
Sambucus nigra. It is better to use a prepared formula rather than try to make it on
your own from fresh berries and flowers. Elderberries contain cyangenic glycosides
that can be poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea and
Most research has focused on elderberry’s therapeutic value against influenza.
Hadassah University Hospital in Israel found that elderberry was effective in vitro
against 10 different influenza strains. Cytokine activity for IL-1, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-
8 all significantly increased thereby confirming its anti-inflammatory and antiviral
Another Israeli study by Hebrew University in Jerusalem and published in the
Journal of Internal Medical Research found that participants enrolled with existing
flu like symptoms who took 15 ml of elderberry syrup 4 times a day recovered four
days earlier than those on medications or a placebo.

Finally, a more recent 2019 study by the University of Sydney observed that certain
compounds in elderberry inhibit the flu virus’s entry and replication in human cells.
However, there is also research showing elderberry’s positive impact on coronavirus
In 2014, researchers at Emory University noted that elderberry extract inhibited
coronavirus virility at the point of infection. The scientists hypothesized that
elderberry rendered the virus non infectious.
One of the better studies came out of National Sun Yat Sen University and the
China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan in 2019. The researchers used an
ethanol extract of Sambucus stem (not the berry) and observed its potential
against coronavirus strain NL63
It is important to remember that deaths being attributed to the coronavirus are
more often than not complicated by secondary infections that are usually bacterial
such as pneumonia. In addition to its antiviral properties, elderberry is also
effective against pathogenic bacteria. Under laboratory conditions at Justus Liebig
University in Germany, elderberry was shown to be very effective against several
bacteria that are responsible for pneumonia during flu-like infections, and against
Influenza A and B viruses in particular

A systematic review of the existing research before 2011 by the University of British
Columbia and published in the journal Pharmaceuticals, concluded:
“all strains of human and avian influenza viruses tested (including a Tamiflu-
resistant strain), as well as herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus,
and rhinoviruses, were very sensitive to a standardized Echinacea purpurea
There are different species of Echinacea. The species Echinacea purpurea has been
shown to be most effective and targets the most infectious pathogens. When
purchasing echinacea, be certain it is the purpurea strain.
Echinicea does present limitations depending upon the severity of an infection.
Once a cold caused by any one of the various cold viruses, including coronavirus,
more deeply infects the bronchia and the lower lung, echinacea does not appear to
be helpful. It is more effective with upper respiratory tract infections.
One of the largest placebo double blind studies on echinacea was conducted by
Cardifff University in the UK. The study followed participants for four months and

confirmed the safety of long term echinacea supplementation. It also observed a
statistically significant decrease in cold episodes in the echinacea group.
There are no strong studies showing echinacea’s effectiveness against coronavirus.
Up until 2014, only one study looked at its bioactivities against coronavirus and that
was a mouse model which required high doses of the plant extract.
In 2012, Griffith University in Australia undertook one notable double blind study to
determine whether echinacea provided protection to air travelers. The study
“Supplementation with standardized Echinacea tablets, if taken before and
during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of
respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.”
As a piece of consumer advice, a Cornell University study looked at the medicinal
properties throughout different parts of the echinicea plant: leaves, stems, bark,
roots, etc. The scientists noted that only echinacea extracts that contain the root
showed significant antiviral properties. Echinacea appears to modify the clinical
course of flu-like respiratory infection by acting upon IL-8, IL-10 and IFN cytokine
activity beneficially.

Olive Leaf
Oleuropein (OLE) is the most important biomolecule in the olive tree that
contributes to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer,
antimicrobial and antiviral activities and effects. One advantage of olive leaf is that
it is highly bioavailable to the body’s cells.
There are almost 10,000 studies in the National Institutes of Health literature
database referring to OLE, olive leaf, and olive oil, most with respect to its strong
antioxidant and anticancer properties. According to analysis conducted by the
Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome of the oleuropein content in
different parts of the olive plant, extracts made from buds and flowers showed the
greatest strength and potency.
Olive leaf has not been shown to be particularly effective against viral upper
respiratory infections; however there is considerable evidence to support olive leaf’s
ability to strengthen the immune system against infectious viral diseases in addition
to possessing many anti-inflammatory qualities.
There are only a few studies showing olive leaf’s effectiveness against respiratory
viruses. One randomized trial performed by the University of Auckland in New

Zealand suggests olive leaf can contribute to treating respiratory illnesses, including
coronavirus. A 2001 study out of the University of Hong Kong identified 6 separate
antiviral agents in olive that were effective against parainfluenza and respiratory
syncytial virus (RSV).
Olive leaf is also effective against bacterial pathogens. Most bacterial pneumonias
are gram-positive. According to a joint study by Arab American University and the
University of Central Florida College of Medicine, OLE worked best against gram-
positive pathogens but gram-negative organisms appeared to be resistant to OLE
(eg, E coli, Salmonellas, etc.).
But OLE does possess notable anti-viral properties. The current Covid19 pandemic
appears to utilize the host cell’s ACE2 receptor. This same receptor is also activated
in HIV infections. This is one reason why patients infected with this new coronavirus
strain are being prescribed HIV drugs. Therefore might olive leaf extract contribute
to the treatment for this new coronavirus strain? 
New York University biochemists identified olive leaf extract’s anti-HIV activity to
modulate the host cell gene expression due to HIV infection. In fact, olive leaf
extracts reversed HIV-1 infections. This was published in Journal of Biochemical and
Biophysical Research. The conclusions state, “Treatment with OLE reverses many of
these HIV-1 infection-associated changes.”  Another joint study by NYU and
Harvard Medical School concluded that OLE from olive leaf is “a unique class of HIV-
1 inhibitors” and is “effective against viral fusion and integration.”

Oregano Oil
Oregano possesses a compound called carvacrol that has been shown to be
antiviral. Although it has been tested on several influenza and flu-like respiratory
viruses, it does not appear to have been tested against coronavirus.
Soochow University in China and the University of Oklahoma published a study in
the BMC Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine focusing on oregano’s
antiviral properties against influenza viruses. Although oregano did not kill the virus
it nevertheless inhibited the virus’ ability to translate proteins responsible for the
viral binding to cells.
A University of Putra Malaysia meta-analysis of existing research of different plant
essential oils reported oregano was strongest against the flu-like viruses adenovirus
and coxsackie virus.
A 2010 randomized double blind study study published in Evidence Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine suggested oregano was beneficial as a

throat spray and showed significant and immediate improvement of upper
respiratory infectious ailments.
University of Arizona published a paper in the Journal of Applied Microbiology
investigating oregano’s antiviral properties when used as a sanitizer. The study
focused on one flu-like virus, novovirus. If sprayed on surfaces, carvacrol will kill
the virus within 15 minutes of exposure. The most recent research into Covid19’s
surface life — living outside of an animal host — is 9 days.

Other Botanicals
Saikosaponins is an important family of compounds found in the Bupleurum plant,
which has been shown to have possible anti-coronavirus properties.
Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan examined many of the derivatives of
saikosaponins and observed it has very potent anti-coronaviral activity that
interferes with the early stage of the virus’ replication. Several companies offer
Bupleurum online
University College Dublin and Sichuan Agricultural University conducted a
systematic meta-review of the existing medical literature on Chinese herbs that
may prevent and treat viral respiratory infections. Among the most promising herbs
against SARS coronavirus were panax ginseng, glycyrrhizin from licorice, and Isatis
tinctoria, commonly known as woad or Asp of Jerusalem. Isatis is also available
Houttuynia cordata also known as fish mint, rainbow plant, fish wort, bishop’s weed
is indigenous to Southeast Asia. This botanical directly inhibits coronavirus’
protease and blocks the viral RNA polymerase activity. A study out of Tsinghua
University in Beijing found it significantly reduces fevers, sore throat and coughs
due to the SARS virus. Tinctures of this plant are available online.

Vitamin C
Unlike the US, most of the world, especially in Asia and continental Europe,
recognizes Vitamin C as an important anti-viral agent. It is also a remarkable
antioxidant shown to ward off infections. At this moment, China is conducting
several clinical trials with intravenous Vitamin C to treat patients infected with the
Covid19 strain. The city government of Shanghai is now actively treating patients
with intravenous Vitamin C. A trial at Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan is using 24,000

mg per day intravenously. The Wuhan study can be viewed on the US National
Library of Medicine’s website here: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04264533
Until recently, Vitamin C has not been tested against coronavirus. There was  one
study performed to see whether the vitamin protected chick embryo organs from
infection by avian coronavirus — a very common infection in fowl. That study
showed the vitamin positively increased embryo resistance against the virus.
Otherwise, Vitamin C has only been well studied against other viral infections,
especially influenza.
Seoul National University College of Medicine concluded that Vitamin C is an
essential factor for anti-viral immune responses at the early stage of Influenza A
In 2017 the University of Helsinki reviewed 148 studies that indicated Vitamin C
may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria and viruses. The most
extensive indication studied was the common cold. Among people who are
physically active, Vitamin C was most beneficial. However, many studies relied on
very low Vitamin C doses, which likely contributed to the minor benefits observed.
Some of these were as low as 100 mg daily. In addition, the studies showed that
colds’ duration was frequently shorter and less severe among people with sufficient
Vitamin C levels.
An early randomized double blind trial to investigate Vitamin C’s ability to protect
elderly hospitalized patients from acute respiratory infections was conducted at
Hudderfield University in the UK. The study relied on a very low dose of 200 mg per
day. Nevertheless, those who received the vitamin fared significantly better than
those taking placebo.
Finally, there was another controlled placebo study involving 715 students between
the ages 18-32 taking 1000 mg four times daily. The test group had an 85%
decrease in flu and cold symptoms compared to the control.

Vitamin D
Barely a week goes by without another study appearing in the peer-reviewed
literature that looks at either Vitamin D’s therapeutic characteristics or the risks of
Vitamin D deficiency. A high number of otherwise healthy adults have been
reported to have low levels of vitamin D, mostly at the end of the Winter season.
Deficiency rates vary between 42% for the entire population to 82% for Black
Americans and 63% for Latinos. People who are housebound, institutionalized and
those who work night shifts are most likely to be vitamin D deficient. This includes
many elderly people who receive limited exposure to sunlight.

It has been shown that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increase risk in
autoimmunity illnesses and greater susceptibility to infection. It also boosts up the
body’s mucosal defenses which are critical for protecting ourselves from infectious
respiratory viruses
Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital in conjunction with a global
collaborative study to follow up on a Cochrane analysis of 25 randomized controlled
trials involving 11,000 participants confirmed that vitamin D. taken daily or weekly
significantly cut the risk of respiratory infections in half
Jikei University School of Medicine in Japan conducted a randomized double blind
placebo trial to measure the rate that Vitamin D reduced seasonal influenza A.
Almost twice as many participants in the placebo group came down with the flu
compared to the Vitamin D group. The Japanese scientists also observed that
people with a history of asthma were best protected.
For children, a Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia meta review identified 13 of 18
studies confirming that Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased
incidences of acute lower respiratory infection.

N-Acetyl Cysteine
Oxidative stress is a well known pathway for microbial infections such as viruses
and bacterial pneumonia, especially in the lungs.
When the lungs are subject to serious oxidative stress, there is an increase in
inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-8 and Tumor necrosis factor or TNF.
Each of these cytokines have been shown repeatedly in clinical research to play a
role in different respiratory infections including influenza, coronavirus, echovirus,
adenovirus, coxsackie virus and others. Therefore, certain antioxidants can alleviate
lung damage due to oxidative stress.
N-acetyl cysteine is one of these extremely important antioxidants. It exhibits both
direct and indirect antioxidant properties. The indirect benefit is that it increases
the concentration of another important antioxidant, glutathione, in the lung cells.
There is no confirmatory evidence that NAC directly targets flu or flu-like viral
infections; however it has been shown to significantly reduce the rate of clinical
Johann Goethe University Department of Virology observed that NAC inhibits the
replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses by decreasing several these pro-

inflammatory molecules. The scientists recommend that NAC should be included as
an additional treatment option in the case of an influenza A pandemic.
An Italian randomized placebo study conducted at the University of Genoa found
that subjects who were already suspected of having contact with the H1N1 flu virus
who were placed under NAC treatment had a 25% rate of experiencing symptoms
compared to 79% in the placebo group.
Certain cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor and IL-6, have been associated
with the pathogenesis of influenza and can increase the risk of mortality. In a
mouse study, Italian researchers at Zambon Research Center gave NAC to flu-
infected mice with a significant decrease in mortality.

Colloidal Silver
Nanoparticle or colloidal silver has been studied extensively for its anti-bacterial
properties but less so for infectious viruses. Most studies for silver’s antiviral
activities have focused on HIV-1, Hepatitis B, herpesvirus and respiratory syncytial
virus or RSV.
In a 2005 issue of the Journal of Nanotechnology, the University of Texas and
Mexico University observed that silver nanoparticles could kill HIV-1 within 3 hours,
and they suspected that this may be true for many other viruses as well. However,
this conclusion may be too premature and more research is necessary.
There are studies showing silver’s efficacy against respiratory viruses. One large
study by Japan’s National Defense Medical College Research Institute, published in
the Journal of Molecular Sciences, recommended that Japanese healthcare workers
take nanosilver to protect them from viruses including coronavirus.
In 2010, the University of Naples measured silver nanoparticles’ capabilities to
reduce and prevent infection from the parainfluenza type 3 virus. The scientists
hypothesized that the silver may block the virus’ interaction with the cell. Then a
joint study by Deakin University in Australia and Osaka University in Japan found
that colloidal silver significantly protected cells from H3N2 flu infection and
prevented viral growth in the lungs
Finally, colliodal or nanoparticle gold has also been shown to inhibit the flu virus’
binding capaticity to a cell’s plasma membrane. That research was carried out by
Freie University in Germany.


Yes, we should be concerned about the coronavirus’ high infectious rate. At the
moment, the primary solutions being sought to handle the crisis is to spend billions
of dollars to develop an effective vaccine and an accurate diagnostic kit.
Additionally, according to a study out of Johns Hopkins University’s School of Public
Health, the incubation period is estimated at 5.1 days for being infected and
capable of infecting others without displaying symptoms. But there is no mention in
the medical community nor the mainstream media about what we can do to
strengthen our immune system.
Yes, a high quality 99% barrier mask is important, especially if worn in a crowded
environment. Repeated washing of our hands for a full minute with soap water. Rub
surfaces with alcohol at home and work and allow it to sit for 30 seconds. Likewise,
wipe down door handles and telephone receivers. Quarantining people who have
been exposed is important until they test negative. Closing schools is prudent. And
if a vaccine is eventually developed and shown to be safe and effective that is
another recourse. However none of the above protects the immune system in the
event of coming into contact with the virus. We believe that the recommended
natural solutions shared above, since it is supported in the peer reviewed scientific
literature, is something everyone can do. Besides, it is safe and not expensive.
Therefore these natural solutions too should be considered as a viable and effective
recourse to lessen this pandemic’s fatal effects.